Acute shortages of home care workers are occurring all over the country, threatening care for people with disabilities and older adults. Many agencies are struggling with retention and scheduling as a smaller pool of workers are increasingly moved around to cover open positions.
In Minnesota and Wisconsin, nursing homes have denied admission to thousands of patients over the past year because they lack essential staff, according to local long-term care associations. In New York, patients living in rural areas have been injured, soiled themselves, and gone without meals because paid caregivers aren’t available, according to testimony provided to the state Assembly’s health committee in February. In Illinois, the independence of people with severe developmental disabilities is being compromised, as agencies experience staff shortages of up to 30 percent, according to a court monitor overseeing a federal consent decree.
The emerging crisis is driven by low wages, mostly funded by state Medicaid programs, and a shrinking pool of workers willing to perform physically and emotionally demanding work. It portends even worse difficulties to come. America’s senior citizen population will swell to 88 million people in 2050, up from 48 million currently, and requires more assistance with chronic health conditions and disabilities, experts warn.
“If we don’t turn this around, things are only going to get worse,” said Dr. David Gifford, Senior Vice President of quality and regulatory affairs for the American Health Care Association, which represents nursing homes across the U.S.
Rising Demand, Stagnant Wages
For years, experts have predicted that demand for services from a rapidly aging population will outstrip the capacity of the direct care workforce.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates an additional 1.1 million workers of this kind will be needed by 2024 — a 26 percent increase over 2014. Yet, the population of potential workers who tend to fill these jobs, overwhelmingly women ages 25 to 64, will increase at a much slower rate. Falling immigration and refugee rates may make the situation worse.
After the recession of 2008-’09, positions in Medicaid-funded agencies were relatively easy to fill. Now, however, the improving economy has led these workers to pursue other higher-paying alternatives. Turnover rates have soared.
At the same time, wages for nursing assistants, home health aides, and personal care aides have stagnated, making recruitment difficult. The average hourly rate nationally is $10.11 — a few cents lower than a decade ago, according to PHI, an organization that studies the direct-care workforce. There is a push on now in a handful of states to raise the minimum to $15 an hour.
Hardest to cover are people with disabilities or older adults who live at some distance from a city center and need only one to two hours of help a day. Workers prefer longer shifts and less time traveling between clients, so they gravitate to other opportunities.
Hard Times in Wisconsin
Some of the best data available comes from Wisconsin, where long-term care facilities and agencies serving seniors and people with disabilities have surveyed their members over the past year.
One of seven caregiving positions in Wisconsin nursing homes and group homes remain unfilled, one survey discovered; 70 percent of administrators reported a lack of qualified job applicants. As a result, 18 percent of long-term facilities in Wisconsin have had to limit resident admissions, declining care for more than 5,300 vulnerable residents.
“The words ‘unprecedented’ and ‘desperate’ come to mind,” said John Sauer, president and chief executive of LeadingAge Wisconsin, which represents not-for-profit long-term care institutions. “In my 28 years in the business, this is the most challenging workforce situation I’ve seen.”
Sauer and others blame inadequate payments from Medicaid — which funds about two-thirds of nursing homes’ business — for the bind. In rural areas, especially, operators are at the breaking point.
“We are very seriously considering closing our nursing facility so it doesn’t drive the whole corporation out of business,” said Greg Loeser, chief executive of Iola Living Assistance, which offers skilled nursing, assisted living, and independent living services in a rural area about 70 miles west of Green Bay.
Like other short-staffed operators, he’s had to ask employees to work overtime and use agency staff, increasing labor costs substantially. A nearby state veterans home, the largest in Wisconsin, pays higher wages, making it hard for him to find employees. Last year, Iola’s losses on Medicaid-funded residents skyrocketed to $631,000 — an “unsustainable amount,” Loeser said.
Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker has proposed a 2 percent Medicaid increase for long-term care facilities and personal care agencies for each of the next two years, but that won’t be enough to make a substantial difference, Loeser and other experts say.
The situation is equally grim for Wisconsin agencies that send personal care workers into people’s homes. According to a separate survey in 2016, 85 percent of agencies said they didn’t have enough staff to cover all shifts, and 43 percent reported not filling shifts at least seven times a month.
These staff shortages are making it more important that agencies have the right workforce management tools to help with employee retention and manage the changing schedules of a shrinking workforce. To learn more about how workforce management can help your agencies minimize turnover and improve retention rates, contact MITC.